teaching tolerance native american
It wasn’t part of my development and my master’s in education, it wasn’t part of my standards or textbooks in Tennessee or Georgia, and it also was not part of the education I received as a student myself, growing up in North Carolina. Because when I taught middle school as a middle school social studies, Spanish and English language arts teacher, I was never prepared to teach histories of American slavery, either for African enslavement or Indigenous enslavement. The only place where there’s some evidence for that is on the northwest coast, the Pacific Northwest in the 18th and 19th century, but it’s not a widespread idea. This really gets amplified. The end was just the beginning. So a successful war party would take home captives and the captives as a whole would really face different fates. For example, their lesson Teaching Thanksgiving in a Socially Responsible Way raises the point that “Native Americans have been speaking out and writing back against the colonialist narrative of Thanksgiving for as long as the American narrative has existed.” One thing that we do know is that labor is only one part of this equation. In both instances, I’m really struck by this idea of Indigenous populations, whether they are Indigenous nations here, African people on the continent of Africa, are in a sense saying, “Okay, in what ways can we incorporate these new people into our existing way of life?”. That they’re somehow fundamentally different from their Christian neighbors. I want to return to the Yamasee War for a moment. Those Christian kingdoms eventually become what we now think of as Spain. You see their participation in the Atlantic slave trade, which targets Africans, increase dramatically throughout the course of the 18th century. Hasan K. Jeffries: When we think about the racialization of slavery in the American context, we often draw our attention to Bacon’s Rebellion and think about the ways in which this colonial rebellion, landless whites in Virginia, are rebelling against the landed elite for their piece of the pie, and the response to that on the part of the land and white elite is like, “Oh, we need to move away from this particular class hierarchy and shift our attention to creating a permanent underclass, that being enslaved African laborers.”. As Native American Heritage Month comes to a close, be sure to continue incorporating this history in your curriculum and support Native American students year-round. There does develop, though, a trade in Indian slaves. Teaching Tolerance Unsettling America Settler colonialism is a useful framework for making sense of the history of the United States and more specifically California, which experienced three distinct phases of colonization - Spanish, Mexican, and American. In Teaching Hard History: American Slavery, the SPLC’s Teaching Tolerance project last year detailed the ways in which schools are failing to adequately teach this history and how Americans lack a basic knowledge of the fundamental role slavery played in shaping the country.. They could also be a symbol of prestige and power or part of the expansion of a chief’s social network. Like the [inaudible 01:09:28]. They had armor. So that reorients how we think about the triangle trade, how we think about the Atlantic slave trade, because it adds this countercurrent to the normal cycle that we look at when we have these maps and diagrams in our history textbooks. Millions of Indigenous people lived in North America before European colonial powers invaded. Christina Snyder: For a country that is so fundamentally committed to the ideal of freedom, I think this really challenges us to reconsider just how broad the scope of slavery was, how long it lasted, how many people it affected? Furthermore, the Teaching Tolerance writer chided Americans for worrying about the reputational damage done to Sandmann. Throughout the colonial period, firearms are a very popular trade item, second only to textiles. But what we need to do with this new research is to realize that slavery, and the warfare that accompanied it, contributed significantly to Indigenous mortality in that early colonial period. The ideas about warfare and captive- taking, they did vary from one place to the next and it’s not the same everywhere. So this is very personal to me, thinking about issues of curriculum and teaching practice. Meredith McCoy: So much of what we’re asked to teach as teachers is divided into historical periods. Eventually South Carolina cobbles together and army from their own militia, from some neighboring colonies. Teaching Tolerance: How State Standards Represent Indigenous Peoples Instructional Content. What Christina’s pointing to here that is really important is that there is a way that over time, because of extreme social pressure, Indigenous peoples, Indigenous nations are having to make the best possible choices that they can make in extreme circumstances to preserve their own people. European colonies, like Virginia and South Carolina, New England, even in New Mexico, they’re beginning to be strongholds of European settlement and pushing out Native people. Which is what we typically think of as the prototypical form of slavery that is the kind that was practiced in the South and the Caribbean in the 18th and 19th centuries. So something that we can see is that colonialism forced Indigenous people and Africans into a global economy that valued them as commodities and laborers. You can find these online @tolerance.org. So here’s where I think it’s appropriate to talk about the Yamasees’ war. You're encouraged to search its portal for more. — "Native American Mascots Big Issue in College Sports", Teaching Tolerance, May 9, 2001 While many universities and professional sports teams (for example, the Cleveland Indians , who had a Chief Wahoo ) no longer use such images without consultation and approval by the respective nation, some lower-level schools continue to do so. They are also experiencing land loss. That’s where you can really see the vulnerability of these kinds of unarmed groups. Because it would be really easy for a student to just think, “Well, Indigenous peoples had enslavement too before the Europeans arrived, so why is it a big deal?” Or, “Indigenous peoples participated in the European slave trade too. This podcast provides a detailed look at how to teach important aspects of the history of American slavery. This doctrine of discovery is basically a legal notion that, supported by the Catholic Church, that decrees that only Catholic powers should colonize North America, and that essentially Indigenous people only had use rights. So on the second voyage to the Caribbean, he takes captives. To continue, log into your Teaching Tolerance account. Why is it that Indigenous peoples really feel that they have to adopt these European notions of the slave trade? So I think the materials that we’re developing are really crucial resources. To do some sort of mapping where they’re looking at, what are these power dynamics? This has to be unpacked first if we are to understand the origin and evolution of American slavery. Soon, the same discussions were being had on black call-in radio shows and in black-dominated spaces. I’ll see you on the other side. Christina Snyder: One thing that we have to understand first is that Native North America is incredibly diverse on the eve of colonization. Apple Podcasts | Google Music | Spotify | RSS | Help, Christina Snyder I think part of the importance of including Indigenous enslavement in how we teach the history of American slavery is that it does change so much about how we understand timeline and geography. So at that point they and most other English colonies on the Eastern Seaboard increasingly turn to African slavery. It’s not completely destroyed, but tens of thousands of people are either killed or displaced into slavery. Colonists themselves are really terrified and they have seen how the Indian slave trade has destabilized the region, has really invoked the military power of Native nations, which still outnumber them and nearly destroyed the colony. It’s interesting because even though in many cases European colonizers are really using this brute force to invade Native villages to take captives, they actually wanted to have this legal foundation that would make their conquest legitimate, at least in the eyes of fellow European colonizers. So, they’re really starting to lose control over their participation in this trade and to see how abusive and how destructive it can be. We often talk, and rightly so, a lot about conflict early in the colonial period. So Europeans have this idea that slavery can be passed down indefinitely through, especially the maternal line, is how they begin to define it. So thinking about these ideas of Indigenous people being integrated into these European capitalist understandings of intergenerational servitude, it really is a cognitive dissonance with the idea that captivity is something that maintains a social fabric. So part of this change is how European understandings of the commodification of human beings as laborers interface with Indigenous understandings of captives as part of a mechanism to repair a broken social fabric after warfare or after death. It’s interesting, even if you have a student who is fluent in Spanish, to have them read the document in Spanish to the rest of the class who maybe can’t understand it. These allies have varying roles in the war. Where was it going to get those resources? So they’re joined by Lower Creeks, Savannahs and Apalachees, and to a lesser extent by Upper Creeks, Choctaws and Cherokees. In the West, the major colonizing power are the Spanish. Kate Shuster is our executive producer. That, I think is precisely the narrative that teachers should be using in their conversations with students about how to understand the role of Indigenous peoples in the slave trade, both in the slave trade of other Indigenous peoples and in the slave trade of African peoples. But what does happen that’s different is that they, over time, are going to be a smaller and smaller percentage of that overall enslaved population. Teaching Tolerance Classroom Activities from Tolerance.org Many excellent activities for a variety of subjects and lesson plans. Especially when thinking about American history as a whole, because from the perspective of Native people, the colonial period started in the 15th century with Columbus’s arrival and it’s still going on today. What this history forces us to do is reckon with the myriad experiences depending on location and time. They really push deeply into the Mississippi Valley, eventually into Louisiana. So we cannot understand the history of American slavery separate from the United States as a settler colonial entity. Just because of the devastation of colonialism, those numbers were much greater, we think, before the European invasion. It may come into contact and kind of reform itself. What’s so central to that evolution is how in the minds of white settlers, white colonists, European colonists, how they are seeing the relationship to these colonies by Native people. Could you tell us a little bit about why it’s important for our listeners to hear what she has to say? Sarah mentioned that these kinds of activities are really useful and important for students because it helps them see the conflict as not just an isolated event. So the Yamasees engaged in the slave trade, but they begin to become disillusioned with it. A project of the Southern Poverty Law Center ©1991-2020. The lesson introduces students to two texts written by Native American authors that offer a different perspective on the Thanksgiving story than … They’re becoming embroiled in imperial conflicts, in global trade. A Culturally Responsive Approach to Discussing Thanksgiving in The Classroom - Linday Barrett; Decolonizing Thanksgiving: A Toolkit for Combatting Racism in Schools - Lindsey Passenger Wieck; Teaching about Thanksgiving - LearnNC (UNC School … European concepts of bondage transformed the way Native nations interacted with each other, resulted in the enslavement and death of millions of Indigenous people, and sparked widespread resistance by Native nations. Here are some resources that can help deconstruct these and other stereotypes: • Stereotypes and Tonto – This lesson from Teaching Tolerance, for grade… Teaching Tolerance provides free resources to educators—teachers, administrators, counselors and other practitioners—who work with children from kindergarten through high school. For example, when war parties go out, they’re often addressing a particular grievance and that’s usually the loss of life due to the fact of enemies taking their own people in war. However, an unprecedented constitutional amendment in Montana requires classroom teachers to integrate information about Native American culture and history in all instruction. But in the West, the impact is really perhaps minimal or zero. Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Corps Member Summit. Discovering Lewis and Clark. They’re facing severe land loss, severe population devastation, and in order to make sure that their people survive, they’re having to shift their understandings of what enslavement means and how they participate in this very capitalistic notion of enslavement that Europeans are bringing with them. The Iroquois have a term for this, which is “the mourning wars.” Mourning, not as in the time of day but as in mourning a relative for death. On the eve of colonialism, Europeans had relatively limited experience with slavery, and they each brought their own experiences and understandings into the colonial context. Hasan K. Jeffries: One of the things that really leaps out when I think about the history of the Yamasee War is that as teachers, we really have to take seriously Native nations as political thinkers. At that time and native slave could fetch the cost of 200 deer skins. Hasan K. Jeffries: Our theme song is “Different Heroes” by A Tribe Called Red featuring Northern Voice, who graciously let us use it for this series. McCabe Greer Professor of History, Penn State University. Often the version of enslavement that we’re expected to teach is sort of fixed in time as though there is one version of enslavement and that everyone who was enslaved experienced it in a certain way. So a few years before the Yamasee War starts, they’re 100,000 deer skins in debt to Carolina, which is really about twice of South Carolina’s annual export. So those stories are really important stories for us to chat with our students as we’re thinking about how Indigenous peoples participated in and also pushed back against European notions of enslavement. Those are the real takeaway points that we hope that teachers will sit with in thinking about histories of Indigenous enslavement. Partially to work them on their own plantations, but also for deportation. When it comes to Native American history and culture, many textbooks are light on relevant content. Writer and historian Bernard DeVoto observed more than 50 years ago that a dismaying amount of American history has been written without regards to the Indians. An example of Indigenous people figuring out ways to push back and really exert their own sovereignty and their own control over their own space. He and his father were both participants and had bought and sold West Africans in Europe. Especially peoples who are living near the coast closer to these European sites of invasion. So we think, these numbers are very hard to pin down. Many of them also join attacks against South Carolina plantations. The first is that it’s trans-generational. If we look at that, and we think about it in terms of the broader effects of colonization, it really gives us a sense of the devastation. Different Indigenous societies have different words for this. One of the things that we really have to remember is that for most of the colonial period, and certainly west of the Mississippi, Indigenous peoples are still in control. How do we get this mesh of Christian ideology and legal concepts that then justify the enslavement of peoples from Africa and the Americas? So these events, especially in the early colonial period, they don’t necessarily translate from one colonial context to the next. Meredith McCoy: How effective is the Yamasee War at ending indigenous enslavement, both along the Eastern Seaboard and then continent wide pushing into the West? Christina Snyder: So some of those captives go back to Europe. ... A long list of Native American lessons and units from Mr. Donn's site. Images show Native Americans wearing both modern and traditional clothing and engaging in a variety of activities – everything from weaving to skateboarding. Partially because New England had been one of the top buyers of enslaved Native people from the South and they to get more cautious about it in the wake of the Yamasee War. So when Spaniards first came to North America, we have to remember that, 1492 is when Columbus set sail, but it’s also the year that marks the end of the Reconquista, which is Christian Spain’s centuries-long fight to claim all of the Iberian Peninsula for the Christian kingdoms. One thing that I would emphasize to teachers is that we think a lot about Native population loss in the early colonial period. What is this looking like in terms of how communities, exactly as you’re saying, initially attempt to incorporate these newcomers as guests, or visitors, or relatives, and then eventually as a tool for their own survival become complicit in these systems of violence against other people? Teaching Tolerance has a broad set of resources, toolkits, and professional development that can support corps members and alumni interested in advancing safe classrooms. So they’re not actually these really magnificent weapons initially. They continue to engage in Indian slavery. So we see the ways that this concept that starts as a European religious idea, comes and travels to the United States and its origins and becomes this really foundational and shaping idea that impacts everything else about how the legal system functions for Indigenous peoples in the United States today. Just what I mean by that is that it can be passed from a parent to a child. They started on Good Friday of 1715 and they do it by executing South Carolina’s Indian agent, Thomas Nairne, who had actually accompanied some of those raids against the Florida missions. Private investors, sometimes hundreds of miles away from European settlement because demand for labor Indian settlers. 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