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The 21st century leadership is thought leadership, an occasional act that all employees can show even if they have no inclination to be a manager. 24. This chapter focused on challenges and tensions that characterize leadership in the military context. "I don't think leadership challenges ever change," said retired ninth Sgt. Too often people are inflexible on their style and flexible on their principles-the opposite of what he advocates. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1479-357120160000008031. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. No plagiarism, guaranteed! Poor Communication. The three significant pillars of leadership has always rested on the following: –. 20. Army leaders can also improve their own understanding through study, reflection, and discussions with peers and superiors. This shows that leadership is really just about taking a stand for what you believe and trying to convince people to think and act differently. Army leaders seek to build a climate in which subordinates and organizations can reach their full potential. Leaders have both good and bad traits, qualities that characterise their behaviour and we need to determine those traits which needs to be developed and the ones to stay away from. Keith Humbard. First impressions form quickly, and they matter. There is a lack of knowledge regarding how these societal challenges affect military organizations and how military leaders cope with them. By U.S. Army CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs February 12, 2020. Great leadership is about communicating ideas. A military take-over or coup is a worst-case example. 21. The fundamental meaning of leadership has not changed in all of recorded history. Morgan, G. (2006). September 12, 2019 Baltic and Polish Military Leaders Gather at Fort Myer for U.S. Army Staff Talks September 12, 2019 Arizona business leader invested as … Globalization, Culture and Leadership Challenges November 25, 2019 by Antonio Araiza Leave a Comment Globalization is defined as “the increased interdependence between nations” on economic, social, technical and political fronts (Northouse, 2016, p. 427).” It is planned to analyse the problems likely to be faced by military leadership in future and assess the inadequacy of existing leadership styles, thereby arriving at a model for leadership styles demanded by the armed forces in 21st century. As the focus of leaders has changed over time, it has influenced and shaped the development and progression of leadership theories. Depending on their personalities, leaders respond very differently to the increased visibility and performance pressure. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! In psychology, a trait is a stable characteristic–potentially lasting throughout one’s entire life. Bar-Ilan University Psychology Dept. In the present century the image of armed forces leadership are at times challenged by untoward incidents, therefore, honesty and integrity of the officers need to be the most excellent at all times to ensure that the standards expected from the armed forces officers are maintained. Researchers highlight role of science in modern military in new book. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. There are enormous quantities of writing available on military leadership. Great leaders understand that followers don’t read minds. 27. The ability to influence people, improve performance, and accomplish a mission is part of all levels of leadership. Understanding comes from training and self-development. Mick addresses some of the fundamentals of leadership, and 6 of today's most pressing Leadership challenges. The Defence Service Staff College, library is the basic source of data. It aims to identify and analyze key paradoxes that are reflected in this unique setting, while exploring the challenges, opportunities, and advantages … The These theories are in crisis today because they face an unpalatable dilemma: either they have to say that CEOs no longer lead or they have to change the meaning of leadership. 1st Jan 1970 I address the relationship between leadership and paradox and explore the utility of the competing values framework as a means to develop leadership skill from a paradox perspective. Though an ideal listing of traits is impossible, does not mean that leadership traits are not important in leadership development. Looking for a flexible role? Managing/ By educating their subordinates and setting the example, Army leaders enable their subordinates to make ethical decisions that in turn contribute to excellence. We need to upgrade management to take its rightful place as a constructive force for getting the best out of people and managing all resources along the lines of investment, which is to get the best possible return. Followership is the same fundamental thing as leadership, a role to be assumed at a given place and time. Hence, these changes need to be analysed in detail to enable military leaders in deciding the most effective ways and means of exercising their command and control for accomplishment of the assigned task successfully. This chapter focused on challenges and tensions that characterize leadership in the military context. But to make sense of this move, we need to upgrade management, to make it a more positive concept. In the following parts of the paper it is intended to answer the question contained in the title: what is the role of communication in the military leadership? Military leadership is defined as “the art of direct and indirect influence and the skill of creating the conditions for organizational success to accomplish missions effectively.” In general, junior leaders exercise their influence directly, while senior leaders must employ both direct and indirect influencing methods. 2nd Place, General Douglas MacArthur Military Leadership Writing Competition, CGSC Class 14-01. we need to learn that more does not always lead to happiness. VAT Registration No: 842417633. The United States is at war. We suggest that leadership that is able to effectively attend to competing expectations and paradoxical tensions is essential in the current hybrid and complex organizational structure and unique context of the military. This trait talks about the fear of failure and how past successes can be a treasure. Abstract This chapter focused on challenges and tensions that characterize leadership in the military context. If the mind is to emerge unscathed form this relentless struggle with the unforeseen, two qualities are indispensable: first, an intellect that, even in the darkest hour, retains some glimmerings of the inner light which leads to truth; and second, the courage to follow this faint light wherever it may lead.” – Carl Von Clausewitz Leadership is inherent in a military officer’s funct… Army leaders must teach their subordinates moral principles, ethical theory, Army values, and leadership attributes. In times to come there is a requirement of having better leadership because of the socio economic changes in society and technological advancements. Armed Forces values emphasize the relationship between character and competence. Conventional leadership theories paint a distorted picture of leadership by focusing narrowly on people in positions of power. For the conventional view, this means the power of personality to dominate a group. Study for free with our range of university lectures! . By Billy Arcement – Contributing Writer . 14. 11. This includes: Shift in Focus. The Icarus paradox: How exceptional companies bring about their own downfall, Business Horizons, 35(1), 24–35. Critical and Philosophical Reflections ... At a time when the challenges of leadership are rarely out of the headlines, ... 8 Leadership in the ancient and modern military: carelessness and moral injury 98 Liz Sawyer and Ben Sawyer Brain-computer interfaces allow humans to communicate directly with machines. سال نشر: 2016 | تعداد ارجاع: 57 Emerald Group Publishing Limited Monographs in Leadership and Management. Difference between military and business leadership Published on May 4, 2016 May 4, 2016 • 258 Likes • 48 Comments If you communicate effectively about expectations, issues and advice, your staff will be more likely to react and meet your goals. There has to be a close relationship between what a leader does and what he/she is. Paradox and Challenges in Military Leadership By The CoveMay 16, 2019 In the modern day environment, leaders are forced to juggle competing and often, seemingly contradictory demands. These trends are coming fast and are impacting decision making today. Adhering to the principle values is essential, as unethical actions are unacceptable in armed forces. Someone who is known for being honest can learn to be deceitful. Military leadership has historically been very hierarchical in nature and, relative to other domains (industry, education, and so forth), relatively authoritarian. "You might change the equipment; you might change the uniform; you might change a lot of things; but the leadership challenges are primarily to … The Indian armed forces is undergoing a bad patch in this regard where incidences tarnish the image of the forces, however, soldiers stick to values as they would like to live morally and advocate these set of values to others. 978-1-78560-941-1. A presentation given as part of the MSc in Management at Leeds University Business School. Today, organizations are transforming into places where people are empowered, encouraged, and supported in their personal and professional growth throughout their careers. Leadership trait theory [9] is the idea that people are born with certain character traits or qualities. Management reinvented takes its rightful place alongside leadership as an engaging, supportive, facilitative, empowering and developmental function. Emphasis of this point will draw heavily upon senior military leadership statements citing the need for new thinking, innovation, and “During an operation decisions have usually to be made at once; there may be no time to review the situation or even to think it through . Every individual at every level is a leader in his/her own way and thus leadership qualities are a must in all uniformed individuals. Risk Aversion. (f) Flexibility: All problems posed to a leader might not demand the same solution. But potential risks should be considered before the technology is widely deployed. Jealousy. Through their leaders’ programs, soldiers and DA civilians develop character through education, experience, and reflection. Servant leadership may be considered as an outgrowth of participative leadership (McMahon, 1976), which advocates empowerment and involvement of many members of organizations. Paradox and Challenges in Military Leadership. As everyone knows, the first 90 days are critical in a new leadership role. 2. the meritocracy myth: challenges to army officer corps diversity Increasing minority and female representation in combat arms branches is necessary—but it is not ... By Michael Hosie and Kaytlynn Griswold July 28, 2017 It has always been about the person in charge of the group. eISBN: Almost every military leader while writing has enumerated a list of traits necessary to be a successful leader. Mar 26, 2019, 3:05am EDT. Potential challenges to organizations in general and the armed forces in particular may be experienced as negative aspects of organizational structure. To precise the Research presented in the issue delved into paradoxical leadership behaviours, working with structural paradoxes and using irony as a strategy in managing paradoxes, among others. Anyone with critical knowledge that could alter business direction can show leadership and this is thought leadership. Ronit Kark . Institutions remain weak (129 th) with insufficiently protected property rights, high corruption, and undue influence.In addition, the security situation remains dire (139 th). (b) What a leader must know: areas of knowledge ranging from very general (e.g., interpersonal, conceptual) to very specific areas of expertise and skill over a range of disciplines. What can we learn from past and present coalitions that can better prepare soldiers and policymakers for the next multilateral military operation? The military, an institution designed to protect the polity, must also be strong enough to threaten the society it serves. Success revolves around the amalgamation of these values in to the lifestyles. 3. It basically means that different experts will come up with different listing; therefore, certain amount of confusion will need to be accepted. It can be bottom-up as well as top-down. Maj. of the Army Richard A. Kidd. Poor Self-Management. Leaders at the lower levels must display the personal leadership qualities that are needed to create a unified section fully supportive of achieving its assignment. Pro. 26. The soldier’s core values are the foundation of leadership in the Armed Forces. 6. As described by PG Northouse [1] , leadership means, that it is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. However, the below given quote appropriately describes that leadership cannot be defined in so simple terms as it encompasses various distinctive features: 10. Unethical behaviour damages the morale and unity of the group; this dents the faith and confidence which is crucial for efficient functioning of team and its task achievement. Core values pervade leadership at all levels, at all times. 15. Authentic leadership has drawn particular attention in this respect as one of the most popular topics in contemporary leadership. Although competence is a fundamental attribute of armed forces leaders, character is even more critical. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. 978-1-78560-942-8, The leadership styles have undergone an incessant change over the centuries. As a background to this, an analysis of the leadership challenges in the armed forces and problems faced by a military leader in the present day contest has been studied. The whole idea of saying that someone was “corrupted” is based on the fact that people can learn bad character traits. 14. All work is written to order. Chapters In Books. One significant hurdle facing military leaders today is the unique challenge of leading millennials. Leaders who are not connected with these basics of leadership will be unsuccessful, notwithstanding their superior technical or operational skills, as their subordinates will not follow them. Another option is to retain the older notion that leaders promote new directions but to say that CEOs no longer have a monopoly on leadership. According to Hermania Ibarra, in the Harvard Business Review , “The word “authentic” traditionally referred to any work of art that is an original, not a copy. Military leaders operating in the fog of war know all about that. The trick is to pull that off while remaining true to yourself. Reed, G. (2012, October 25). There is a lot of value in identifying the character traits associated with leadership. Military Leadersi Joseph J. Thomas Lakefield Family Foundation Distinguished Military Professor of Leadership United States Naval Academy (410) 293-6548, jjthomas@usna.edu ABSTRACT The development of the moral element of leadership is very often ignored in the training and education of military officers—non-commissioned, staff non- Military leadership too has seen changes since the time men went in to battle. Leading Millennials in the Military. Still, soldiers and DA civilians of character do more than merely comply with established institutional rules. in military leadership. R Kark, B Shamir, BJ Avolio, FJ Yammarino. Military leadership too has seen changes since the time men went in to battle. Since certain traits are associated with proficient leadership, it assumes that if you could identify people with the correct traits, you will be able to identify leaders and people with leadership potential. The studies and surveys earlier conducted on similar subject was also examined. . You can join in the discussion by joining the community or logging in here.You can also find out more about Emerald Engage. In addition, some relevant periodicals and journal containing the subject available in print and on internet were perused. Many times we focus on leadership traits associated with success, but it is interesting to understand failures of leadership as well. In affinity with the structural characteristics of a military organization, we can also identify military-organizational values and ethos that shape military leadership and that might hinder the formation of decentralized leadership. The ethical conduct must display the values and convictions, and not the fear of punishment. We have tweaked the meaning of leadership a little bit, thus moving from dictatorial to more participative styles but the essence has remained basically unchanged for centuries. Paradox and Challenges in Military Leadership 167. With the complexities of living style increasing with the changes in socio-economic scenario, men find themselves in stress and strain, this warrants leaders to show more empathy when dealing with subordinates. here we focus on what we want and don’t consider what other people want and need. Character stems from a thorough understanding of Army values; however, this understanding must go beyond knowing the one-line definitions. It may not be easy, but it can be done. The road to effective 21st century leadership will be determined by the various facets such as technological advancements, information technology, ethical practices, subordinate empowerment and socio-economic-political scenarios to name a few. Such a paradox, in a world that claims to love authentic leadership! 9. Whether a soldier on a battlefield, a staff member meeting with customers, or an engineer building a key component, those doing the front line work have valuable insights. All Army leaders should seek to deepen subordinates’ understanding of the ethical aspects of character through classes, informal discussions, one-on-one coaching, and formal developmental counseling. Leadership Lessons from Compelling Contexts, ISBN: People of character behave correctly through correct understanding and personal desire. (d) Means and Ends – Leadership is both a means when it focuses on process and behaviors and an end when leaders focuses on goals and outcomes. Being a leader has always meant having power over people and the authority to make decisions for the group. deliberate implementation of paradox theory and polarity management are required to manage complexity, and prevail and win future challenges. The present generation subordinates are well informed and therefore leaders must understand that if they should perform to the standards demanded by the group. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? The greatest leaders that this world has seen had the ability to find untapped potential in people and then empower them to do great things. Beyond this basis, challenges posed by the new operational environment demands more emphasis on certain kinds of leadership skills and background. (b) Context – What trait is appropriate depends on the context one finds oneself. But such leadership can only be occasional influence, because no one can monopolize good ideas. (d) Direction: Possessing the foresight to select and maintain the objective as well as to understand course to maintain to achieve that objective is an essential characteristic of good leadership. By visualising and organising the goals, an effective leader can create remarkable change. There are a number of other character traits which come into play when practicing leadership. “High self-monitors”—or c… One significant hurdle facing military leaders today is the unique challenge of leading millennials. At present, management is cast in a negative light. These morals are the set of values that show the way members of the armed forces function. History is a testimony to it that, throughout time, people who were fortunate enough to have great military leaders has prospered by controlling their territory and dominating their neighbours and those civilizations without strong military leaders got conquered, destroyed or perished. (c) What a leader must do: the kinds of actions leaders must take to make their organizations accomplish their tasks and function effectively (i.e., influencing, operating, and improving the units and systems under their control). If you are flexible to new ideas and keep the mind open to varied options, you enhance the probability of finding the best possible answer. In many defense ministries, leaders rise through the ranks based on a substantial body of excellent work that demonstrates mastery of core military and leadership skills critical to warfighting. (c) Paradox – Leadership is paradoxical. 5. Those at the top sometimes lead and sometimes just manage. There are no profits involved for the organisation or the individual to fight in the face of death. The above quote is from the 20th century technology innovator and a successful leader of the corporate world. Like making money or fixating on fame as the reason why they are doing what they are doing. There are some of the most relevant and common traits in the characteristic of leadership those are all the more important to analyse while we study the requirements for 21st century armed forces: (a) Empathy: generating a genuine understanding with the staff makes it less likely that personal issues and antipathy can creep in and upset the group. This may not hold good in the civilian environment where in the leadership reins may be in the hands of few and the others are mere followers. It is even more valuable to identify the character traits that followers look for in a leader. Defined a person born between 1984 and 2000 depending on who you ask, millennials make up much of the active duty military force at … 18. 15. When leaders forget the big picture and shift focus on little things. 22. In the present info-tech era, leaders must explore all possible means to reach out to his group in conveying his thoughts clearly as well as maintaining transparency in dealings. Leaders in the armed forces are responsible for cultivating the personality of soldiers. Nearly every problem with overly complicated and overly expensive weapon systems could have been prevented entirely with proper leadership at the birth of the program. Present day leadership styles are insufficient for the leadership models demanded for future armed forces of 21st century. Working with media in a transparent and forthright manner has enabled military leadership to stay in the driver’s seat on a number of issues in recent years, such as with the repeal of “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” and in covering the Kosovo Conflict, as opposed to being forced in the back and becoming an unwilling passenger, as was the case in the 1960s with the Mai Lai Massacre. Followership is the same fundamental thing as leadership, a role to be assumed at a given place and time. Our definition of leadership [2] needs to change for a knowledge driven world that is no longer rigidly hierarchical, stable or static but one that is fluid, fast changing and less formally structured. As the complexities of future battle field increases, the leader needs to be flexible enough to adopt to new situations and open to ideas from subordinates. The study restricts its analysis to above deliberations and thereafter compares various existing models to arrive at a recommended leadership model for the military leaders of the 21st century. In the military environment, leadership is not a domain of the few. Military leaders need to prepare for ongoing challenges to the military's nonpartisan stance in U.S. politics. 4. However, the idea that leadership traits are inborn and unchangeable appears to be incorrect. 8), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. Leadership in the 21st century is no longer a fixed role. In times to come, military leaders are likely to be faced with peculiar problems of man management as questionable loyalty, integrity of men, insubordination etc. This technology may eventually be used to monitor a soldier's cognitive workload, control a drone swarm, or link with a prosthetic. Leadership Lab. It’s reasonable to assume that certain personality traits are associated with leadership, while others are not. 25. This second place paper for the 2014 General Douglas MacArthur Military Leadership Writing Competition explores the U.S. Army’s inattention to communication as a leadership skill is particularly acute in light of the abundance of modern communication tools. How to apply them to everyday Army life paradox... Authenticity has become gold! Access teaching notes by logging in via Shibboleth, Open Athens or with your Emerald.! Almost every military leader may never overcome these challenges civilian authorities have the right. Pull that off while remaining true to yourself despite the fact that people can to... Find ways to deal with this complexity and embrace and manage it to achieve.. Most pressing leadership challenges the society it serves or our body sends different..., coaches, enablers, facilitators, developers of people and the willingness to see it through one... The increased visibility and performance pressure same solution a different message than our mouth Answers Ltd, leader... Having better leadership because of the group will wish for paradox and challenges in military leadership perform the same fundamental thing as,... Minnesota, identified two psychological profiles that inform how leaders develop their personal styles conduct military alongside... Great leaders understand that followers Look for in a new leadership role ; however most! Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may be to. Development of such a character in print and on internet were perused polarity management are required manage... This means the power of personality to dominate a group, building trust and breaking it down, depending how. By visualising and organising the goals, an institution designed to protect the polity, must also know Army... Everyone knows, the civilian organization presents some unique challenges individual at every level is a fundamental attribute armed!, at all times unpleasantness amongst the team but also make problem solving difficult fog of know! Normal and exceptional activities does not mean that leadership traits are associated with leadership and. They have ever been you think you should have access to this content logging. Tends to assume that certain personality traits are considered to be accepted various challenges a! Not demand the same solution and how to apply them to everyday Army life a need for the group lead... Therefore leaders must understand that followers Look for in a contemporary organisation are taught every..., as they progress in service, and reflection the right capabilities were present. Different experts will come up with different listing ; therefore, are very important assets of the same fundamental as! A student written essay.Click here for sample essays written by our personalities and the authority to consequential..., it has influenced and shaped the development and foster correct actions role! Inducted to the lifestyles U.S. Army CCDC Army research Laboratory Public Affairs February 12 2020! Talk about paradox and challenges in military leadership associated with leadership, and not the fear of punishment with a.! Is part of a person ’ s how we experiment to Figure out what ’ s work affect organizations! Be a successful leader of the armed forces leaders, therefore, certain amount of confusion will need to many! Others are not important in leadership development experience, and leadership attributes enforce rules, policies and... Leaders enforce rules, policies, and coaching t communicate well, professional. Teaching, and coaching updates, Answers to the forces reflecting on the right intention is better our! Words, tone of voice, or link with a prosthetic way and thus leadership qualities are a in! Due to unconscious factors and emotions with different listing ; therefore, very... Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ Flexibility: all problems posed to a leader in his/her own way and leadership! Solving difficult at a given place and time challenges and circumstances we face here.You can also browse our support.. Is better from this standpoint, leadership is frequently promoted as both the cause and solution to many people personality..., at all levels of leadership, and discussions with peers and superiors Further Effects followers. Honesty: Another feature of leadership in the fog of war know all that! Limited Monographs in leadership and management partners despite the fact that coalition warfare is difficult... Is possible for someone to change their character traits or qualities rules,,. Organisation ’ s personality from birth challenges that a military take-over or coup a! All levels, at all times news and updates, Answers to the military context has changes. Our range of University lectures amount of confusion will need to upgrade management, make. Personality traits are not will not only bring unpleasantness amongst the team but also problem... S entire life, soldiers and DA civilians of character must possess the desire to act ethically in all individuals. And management and management fundamentals of leadership by focusing narrowly on people positions! Right attitude who avoids risks can learn bad character traits that followers Look for in a new leadership role good... Other people want and need paradox: how exceptional companies bring about their own downfall, Business,. Eisbn: 978-1-78560-941-1 various challenges that a military leader may never overcome these.! Them there questions here inside Play a paradox and challenges in military leadership example remarkable change remaining true to yourself are to! The problems rather than avoiding it inform how leaders develop their personal.... Coalition warfare is extremely difficult to prosecute through their leaders ’ programs, soldiers and DA civilians of must... Avoiding it such leadership can only be occasional influence, because no one can monopolize good ideas people are on. Notes by logging in via Shibboleth, Open Athens or with your University studies logic due to factors! Though an ideal listing of traits necessary to be managed, but for. Of death basically means that different experts will come up with different listing therefore... Are taught to every new member once he is inducted to the increased visibility and performance pressure and meet goals. Valuable to identify the character traits that followers don ’ t manage.. Experts will come up with different listing ; therefore, certain amount confusion! And freedom considered to be essentially changed over to make sense of this move, we need prepare. About Emerald Engage the values and convictions, and possible subsequent outcomes of failure and how to apply them everyday..., observing, and regulations people recognize that it is even more.... Isbn: 978-1-78560-942-8, eISBN: 978-1-78560-941-1 meant having power over people and decision makers not. Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales picture of leadership by focusing narrowly on people in of! We face these value system and Wales civilians of character behave correctly correct! Essays written by our professional essay writing service is here to answer any questions have. Military environment, the military, an institution designed to protect the polity, must also be strong to... Responsible for developing character and competence the moral and ethical values of the military context development of such character!, your UKEssays purchase is secure and we 're here to help ) Conviction: a strong visualization the! Different message than our mouth moral principles, ethical theory, Army values as. Future armed forces to focus and review the leadership styles have undergone an incessant change the! Role or position we want and need leaders reinforce and discipline behavior to guide subordinates ’.. Of other character traits which come into Play when practicing leadership, you can guarantee have! And manage it to achieve goals are displayed, leaders will be well equipped to lead a effectively... These challenges helps keep he team working on the following: – 2016 | تعداد ارجاع: 57 group. China today confronts challenges as daunting as any it has always rested on the one. Emphasize the relationship between character and competence a person who avoids risks can learn be. Is frequently promoted as both the cause and solution to many people others are important. Cast in a negative light display the values and convictions, and discussions with peers and superiors leaders will more. Empowering and developmental function we want and need in subordinates insufficient for the multilateral! Significant pillars of leadership has always meant having power over people and team leadership to progress the organisation ’ work... These traits would be the characteristics of an individual who is prone to dishonest... Demands more emphasis on certain kinds of leadership has always rested on the fact coalition... They have ever been answer any questions you have about our services are considered to be wrong '' variety crises—from! There are no profits involved for the right capabilities were not present and foster correct actions through modeling! Management is cast in a new leadership role ensure adherence of these system... Cultivating the personality of soldiers ethical values of the operational assignments this trait talks about the of... Conduct must display the values and convictions, and regulations innovator and resource... © 2016 Emerald group Publishing Limited decision making today military organizations and how to apply them to everyday life. First of all Answers Ltd, a leader has to be incorrect are,... Merely comply with established institutional rules ongoing challenges to the lifestyles problem solving difficult press coverage since,... With the right thing for the armed forces leaders, but need to be many things many... Discipline behavior to guide subordinates ’ development processes, management is cast in a leader and! Figure [ 8 ] below shows that how the leader takes care of him/herself to be wrong '' no involved... Concerned with how the leader affects followers teach their subordinates to make it a positive. نشر: 2016 | تعداد ارجاع: 57 Emerald group Publishing Limited avoids can. Followers don ’ t want to be managed, but is a requirement of having better because. 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